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Jenner H. Mozarabic Rite - 6. The occasional services.
К оглавлению раздела "Литература на иностранных языках"
Mozarabic Rite - The occasional services
At the present day those who belong to the Mozarabic Rite use the Roman Ritual, and, as their bishop is the Archbishop of Toledo, who is of the Roman Rite, the Roman Pontifical is also used for them. The date at which the old Spanish Ritual and Pontifical services ceased to be used is not known. The four existing manuscripts of the Liber Ordinum, which contains these services, are all of the eleventh century, and belonged either to Silos or to San Millan de la Cogolla. There are none at or from Toledo, and, when Cardinal Ximenes had the Missal and Breviary printed, there was evidently no need to print a Ritual and Pontifical, as they were probably no longer used. Of the eleventh century manuscripts of the Liber Ordinum published by Dom Ferotin, one (the Silos manuscripts of 1052) contains a very complete set of occasional services. They consist of: (1) The Blessing of Oil, Salt, and Water; (2) Baptism; (3) Ordinations; (4) The Unction and Visitation of the Sick; (5) The Blessing of Virgins, Abbesses, Widows, and Conversi; (6) The Order of Penance and Reconciliation of heretics and schismatics and for the conversion of Jews; (7) The Order of Death and Burial; (8) Ritus pro Rege observandus; (9) Various Blessings; (10) Orders for Holy Week and Easter; (11) The Order of Matrimony. These are followed by a large number of Masses, chiefly votive. Of these services the following may be noted:-
(1) Baptism.-The order is:-(a) Insufflation. The priest breathes thrice, with the words "Exorcizo te immunde spiritus hostis humani generis". (b) Insignation. The sign of the Cross on the forehead, and exorcism towards the west. (c) Unction with oil on mouth and ears, with "Effeta, effeta, effeta cum sancto spiritu in odorem suavitatis. Bene omnia fecit et surdos fecit audire et mutos loqui". (d)Imposition of hands. (e) Traditio symboli. (f) Blessing of the font preceded by exorcism. (g) Interrogations and Renunciations. (h) Baptism, with "Ego te baptizo in Nomine etc., ut habeas vitam ?ternam." (i) Chrismation on forehead, with "Signum vit? ?ternae quod dedit Deus Pater Omnipotens per Jesum Christum Filium suum credentibus in salutem." (k) Imposition of hands, with prayer. (l) "Post h?c velantur a sacerdote infantes ipsi qui baptizati sunt caput: quo peracto communicat eos" (i.e. the Vesting and Communion). On the third day the children are brought to the priest, who says over them the "Benedictiode Albis". Except in the case of converts from Arianism, no separate order of Confirmation is given. The Chrismation and Imposition of hands after Baptism, followed as it was by Communion, was evidently the only normal form of Confirmation. In the case of Arian converts the words are: "Et ego te chrismo in Nomine etc., in remissionem omnium peccatorum ut habeas vitam ?ternam", followed by the imposition of hands and a prayer. The ceremony of feet-washing, retained in the Celtic and Gallican Baptisms, does not appear in the Spanish Liber Ordinum, though mentioned by the Council of Elvira in 305 (see GALLICAN RITE).
(2) Ordinations.-The minor ordinations are those of clericus, sacrista, and custos librorum. These orders are preceded by "Oratio super eum qui capillos in sola fronte tondere vult"-which looks like a relic of the Celtic tonsure (see CELTIC RITE), but, as Dom Ferotin conjectures, is probably of the nature of an offering "des premisses de la chevelure" (cf. the Trichokouria, seven days after Baptism, in the Byzantine Rite)-by "Orate super parvulum quem parentes ad doctrinam offerunt" and "Benedictio super parvulum qui in ecclesia ad ministerium Dei detonditur". The "clericus" of the next section is evidently also "parvulus". The sacrista has a ring given to him with the words: "Esto ianitor adituum et pr?positus ostiariorum". The custos librorum receives "anulum de scriniis", and is also appointed "senior scribarum". Then follows a curious "Ordo super eum qui barbam tangere cupit". The priest takes wax from a taper and puts a crumb of it on the right, left, and middle of the chin. Prayers are said alluding to the anointing of Aaron's beard. Then "Ista explicita intromittit in anulo barbam cum cera, et in anulo barbam et ceram capulat qui barbam tangit dicens, In Nomine etc. et accipit in linteo nitido. Peracta ista omnia absolvit diaconus dicens, Missa acta est. Et post h?c si est monachus radit barbam". The ordinations of subdeacon, deacon, archdeacon, priest, archpriest, and abbot are very simple. To the subdeacon is given by the archdeacon the "ministerium ad manus lavandos" and a chalice and paten. The bishop gives him the book of St. Paul's Epistles. The bishop puts the stole (orarium) on the left shoulder of a deacon, and delivers a "ferula" to an archdeacon and archpriest, a "manuale" (book of sacraments) to a priest, and a staff and book of the Rule to an abbot. In each case these are accompanied by prayers, and a confirmatio addressed to the newly ordained, which is more or less an explanation of his duties and status. In the case of a priest the assistant priests are directed to lay their hands on him as, vested in stole and chasuble, he kneels before the altar, and, though there is no direction for the bishop to do so, it is evident from the wording of his "Benedictio" that he lays his hands on him also. There is no order given for the consecration of a bishop. The blessings of nuns and other religious are quite simple, veiling with prayer and benediction, and for an abbess the delivery of a staff and the putting on of a mitre.
(3) The Unction of the Sick is given together with an order for the blessing of the unguent. This was done on the Feast of Sts. Cosmas and Damian, the physician-martyrs (27 Sept.), not, as elsewhere in the West, on Maundy Thursday. The bishop makes a cross (a cross pattee with a pendant and the A and O[mega] is figured in the book) with a graphium (style), saying an antiphon "Sicut unguentum in capite etc.", and a prayer and benediction, both referring to the healing of the sick. The Unction of the sick was on the head only, with the sign of the Cross and the words "In Nomine Patris etc." Antiphons referring to sickness and its healing are then said. There is provision for anointing many sick persons at the same time.
The rest of the occasional services do not call for much remark. They are for the most part very simple blessings and prayers, not unlike those found in the Roman Ritual. They include, however, a few of a type found also in the Greek Euchologion for the cleansing of any polluted person, place, or thing, e.g. "super his qui morticinum comedunt vel suffocatum", "super vas in quo (sic) aliquid immundum ceciderit", etc., and theOrders when the king goes out to battle with his army, and when he returns, have a considerable historical interest.
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