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Jenner H. Mozarabic Rite - 5. The mass.
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Mozarabic Rite - The mass
In the present Mozarabic Mass two books are used, the Missale Omnium Offerentium and the complete Missal. The Missale Omnium Offerentium contains what in the Roman Rite would be called the Ordinary and Canon. As nearly the whole Mass varies with the day, this book contains a specimen Mass (that of the Feast of St. James the Great) set out in full with all its component parts, variable or fixed, in their proper order. On all other days the variables are read from the complete Missal. The reason of the name Omnium Offerentium has not been very satisfactorily determined. It would naturally mean "of all who offer", and the phrase "et omnium offerentium : peccata indulge" occurs at the oblation of the chalice. There does not seem to be any reason why this one phrase, which is not in a very striking position, should give its name to the whole service, unless those are right who (like Perez in his "Devocionario Mozarabe") apply the name only to the Missa Catechumenorum. There are indeed quite as improbable origins as this in liturgical nomenclature. But it is possible to conjecture another origin. In the Celtic languages the word for Mass is derived from some Latin word whose origin was the verb offero. The Cornish, Welsh, and Breton have offeren; the Gaelic aifrionn or aifreann. These are generally referred to offerendum, and in support of this we find the French offrande and Spanish ofrenda, both in the sense of a religious offering, equivalent to the Welsh offrwm and Cornish offryn. But the Celtic words are more probably derived from offerentia, a word which is used by Tertullian (Adv. Marc., xxiv) in the general sense of the act of presenting an offering, but which was perhaps used for a time in Celtic countries in the special sense of the Holy Offering. Thus it may be conjectured that the Spanish expression was originally "Missale Omnium Offerentiarum", "Missal of all Masses", which is just what it is. It has been suggested that offerens may have been used in very debased Latin in the sense of an act of offering as well as of one who offers. This would explain the Mozarabic phrase still better.
The Order of the Mass is as follows:
(1) The Preparation.-This consists of prayers during vesting, which for the most part resemble those of the Roman Rite in meaning and sometimes in actual wording. These are followed by a responsory and oratio for pardon and purity, after which the priest goes to the altar and says Ave Maria, In nomine D. N. J. C., Sancti Spiritus adsit nobis gratia, Judica me, with the Antiphon Introibo, Confiteor, with the absolution and the subsequent versicles and responses. The Confiteor differs from the Roman form and there are versicles and responses before it. Then Aufer a nobis, a longer form than the Roman. Then follows the Salutation of the Cross. The priest makes the sign of the cross on the altar, kisses the altar and says a responsory "Salve crux pretiosa" and an oratio. A good deal of this preliminary matter was borrowed by Cardinal Ximenes from the Toletan (Roman) Missal, and is not Mozarabic. On great feasts the priest directly he enters sings to a rather florid piece of plain chant a prayer "Per gloriam nominis tui etc." for help.
(2) The Preparation of the Chalice and Paten.-The corporal is unfolded, the chalice and paten are ceremonially purified, the wine is poured in, and the bread is placed on the paten. To each of these acts there is a prayer or a blessing. A preparation of the chalice before Mass, instead of at the Offertory, is to be inferred from the Irish tracts (see CELTIC RITE). It is still the Byzantine practice, and is retained by the Dominicans at low mass. Yet in the Mozarabic Missa Omnium Offerentium there is a direction to put wine into the chalice during the Epistle, but it is not done.
(3) Ad Missam Officium.-This is the Introit. Officium is a common alternative name, used, among other places, in the Sarum Missasl. The old Mozarabic term (see Add. manuscript 30844) was Pr?legendum or Prolegendum. Anatiphona ad Pr?legendum is the name given by St. Germanus of Paris. It is in the form of a responsory, with Alleluias and Gloria.
(4) The Canticle or Canticles.-This is now Gloria in Excelsis, omitted in Advent (except on Feasts) and Lent. On Easter Day a Latin farced Trisagion, "Sanctus Deus, qui sedes super cherubim, etc.", with optionally also the Benedicite in its abridged form, and on the Sunday in Adventu S. Joannis Baptist? the Benedictus are sung as well. In Add. manuscript 30844 the Trisagion ('agios 'o theos, k.t.l.) is given in Greek (transliterated) and Latin in this place on the Annunciation (18 Dec., the Mass for which day is in that manuscript a fuller one than the others, and like the Mass for Advent Sunday in the printed Missal is given by way of an Ordinary of the Mass) and the Circumcision, and the Latin farced Trisagion now used on Easter Day is given for Christmas Day. This shows that the Ajus of St. Germanus and the Bobbio Missal was certainly the Trisagion.
(5) Oratio.-Though this takes the position of the Roman Collect, it is really a supplementary prayer to the Gloria in excelsis. It is the usual practice (though like most things Mozarabic, not invariable) for psalms, hymns, canticles, and every sort of responsory to be followed by prayers which more or less sum up the leading ideas of what they follow. This is why so many Mozarabic, Gallican, and Celtic prayers are named with reference to what they follow-post Ajus, post Prophetiam, post Nomina, post Pacem etc. This Oratio on a considerable number of days merely continues the idea of the Gloria with little or no reference to the day, even on the Sundays of Advent, when the Gloria itself is omitted. These are mostly in the Temporale, and there are nine Orationes of frequent use; but on certain days (e.g. Christmas Day, the Sunday before the Epiphany, Epiphany, Ascension, Pentecost, Corpus Christi, all the Commons, and between thirty and forty days in the Sanctorale) this Oratio refers to the day and not to the Gloria.
(6) The Prophecy.-This is a lection usually from the Old Testament, except in Paschal time, when it is from the Apocalypse. (See AMBROSIAN RITE.) During Lent and other Fasts, there are two of these lections, one from one of the books of Solomon and the other from the Pentateuch or one of the Historical Books.
(7) The Hymnus Trium Puerorum occasionally follows the Prophecy. This is the Benedictus es (Daniel 3:52-5) with an abridged form of the Benedicite, the whole preceded by Daniel 3:49-51, rather freely quoted. The fourth Council of Toledo (can. xiv) ordered this "in omnium missarum solemnitate". It occurs in the manuscripts on days when it is not given in the printed books. It used to be followed by Psalm 105, Confitemini, but now this is reduced to one verse.
(8) Psallendo (a responsory).-On the second and third Sundays and on weekdays in Lent it is a Tractus, which consists of psalm verses without repetitions, as in the Roman Rite. The Tract or Psallendo on Sundays of Lent, except Palm Sunday when the Traditio Symboli comes here, is followed by the Preces, a short penitential litany, differing each Sunday. Neale points out that these are in verse, though not written so.
(9) The Epistle, or in Paschal time a lection from the Acts of the Apostles, preceded by "silentium facite", proclaimed by the deacon.
(10) The Gospel, preceded only by a short prayer "Comforta me Rex Sanctorum" and the "Munda cor meum corpusque ac labia" (the rest as in the Roman Rite), followed by the Blessing, which is not in the Roman form. These of course are said secretly. The giving out of the Gospel and the response and the censing are similar to the Roman. After the reading the priest signs the Gospel with the cross and kisses it, saying: "Ave Verbum Divinum: reformatio virtutum; restitutio sanitatum."
(11) The Offertory.-This consists of (a) The Lauda, a verse between two Alleluias. It is what St. Germanus calls the Sonus, sung during the procession of the Oblation. There is now no procession, but while it is being sung the Oblation ceremonies go on. (b) The oblation of the bread and wine with prayers resembling but not identical with the Roman. It is at the covering of the chalice with the filiola (pall) that the prayer containing the words "omnium offerentium" (see above) is said. (c) The Blessing of the Oblation, for which two alternative prayers are given, one of which, that generally used, is the "In spiritu humilitatis" and "Veni sanctificator" of the Roman Rite. (d) The censing, with a blessing similar to the Roman blessing at the beginning of Mass, but a different prayer. (e) "Adjuvate me fratres", with response-the Mozarabic form of the "Orate fratres". (f) The Sacrificium, which is what St. Germanus calls Laudes. This with the Lauda forms the equivalent of the Roman Offertorium, here divided in the books by the ceremonies of the Oblation, though in practice there is very little division. (g) When there are offerings, the priest is directed to receive them and say to the offerer: "Centuplum accipias et vitam possideas in Regno Dei." This is the remains of the Offering by the people. (See AMBROSIAN RITE.) The words are retained, but the offering is no longer made. This is followed in the books by the Benedictio Panis (cf. the Pain Benit still used in France, and formerly in England). The form of this is nearly identical with the first of those given in the Roman and Sarum Missals. But it is now no longer used. (h) The Lavabo, with only the first three verses of the psalm. It is followed by a final blessing "super oblationem cum tribus digitis".
(12) The Prayer of Humble Access, said with bowed head by the priest.
St. Isidore in his "Etymologies" (vi, 19) mentions a dismissal of catechumens with a deacon's Proclamation as occurring at this point.
Here begins the Missa Fidelium, which contains the Seven Prayers spoken of by St. Isidore. These seven prayers are:-
(13) Ad Missam Oratio, Oratio Miss? or simply Missa.-This is often, but not always, a Bidding Prayer. The Gallican name is Pr?fatio. It is followed in the Mozarabic by "Agios, Agios, Agios, Domine Rex ?terne, tibi laudes et gratias" sung by the choir, preceded by Oremus (one of the only two instances of this word), and followed by a short invitation to intercessary prayer, a very much compressed form of the Prex (see CELTIC RITE; GALLICAN RITE) sung by the priest.
(14) Alia Oratio.-This, in the Gallican books, is generally headed "Collectio sequitur". The Reichenau fragments (see GALLICAN RITE) are not always quite clear as to whether there are one or two prayers here, and whether this is to be identified with the Collectio or the Ante Nomina of those leaves, but neither of these have reference to the Nomina which follow, nor has the Mozarabic Alia Oratio, except in the unvarying ending "Per misericordiam tuam, Deus noster, in cujus conspectu sanctorum Apostolorum et Martyrum, Confessorum atque Virginum nomina recitantur." This is followed by another fixed passage reciting how "Sacerdotes nostri [here, according to Leslie, the deacon recited the names of the Archbishop of Toledo and other metropolitans of Spain] Papa Romensis [here the name of the reigning pope was inserted] et reliqui [i.e. according to Leslie's conjecture, the Bishops of Carthage, Milan, Lyons etc.]," and all priests, deacons, clerks, and surrounding peoples offer the oblation for themselves and for all the brotherhood with a response: "Offerunt pro se et pro universa fraternitate". Then follow the Diptychs or lists of names commemorated, which are in two parts, Apostles and Martyrs, a list consisting of Our Lady, St. Zachary, St. John (Baptist), the Innocents, the Apostles and St. Mark and St. Luke. To this there is a response "et omnium Martyrum". The second list is "Item pro spiritibus pausantium", with forty-seven names, beginning with Sts. Hilary, Athanasius, Martin, Ambrose, and Augustine, and going on with a list of Spanish persons, many of them archbishops of Toledo, both before and after the Conquest. To this the response, as in the Stowe Missal (see CELTIC RITE), is "et omnium pausantium".
(15) The Oratio Post Nomina continues the intercession. This, the third prayer of St. Isidore's list, is variable with the day, except for the ending, "Quia tu es vita vivorum, sanitas infirmorum et requies omnium fidelium defunctorum in ?terna s?cula s?culorum."
(16) The Pax, with the prayer Ad Pacem, St. Isidore's fourth prayer. The prayer is variable, with a fixed ending, "Quia tu es vera pax nostra etc." After the prayer the priest pronounces the benediction, "Gratia Dei Patris omnipotentis, pax et dilectio D.N.J.C. et communicatio Spiritus Sancti sit semper cum omnibus nobis." In all the principalEastern liturgies except that of St. Mark, this passage from 2 Corinthians 13, is separated from the Pax and comes immediately before the Sursum corda dialogue, its place before the Pax being taken by e'irene pasin or its equivalent. In St. Mark and in the Roman it does not occur, but in the latter ever since the late fourth, or early fifth century at least, the Pax has been associated with the Communion, not with the beginning of the Missa Fidelium. In the Gallican the Pax came as in the Mozarabic. The Ambrosian now follows the Roman, but probably did not always do so. (See AMBROSIAN RITE ; CELTIC RITE; GALLICAN RITE.) In the Mozarabic Mass, the priest says "Quomodo adstatis pacem facite," and the choir sing a responsory, "Pacem meam do vobis etc.", "Novum mandatum do vobis, etc.", during which "accipiat Sacerdos pacem de patena", saying "Habete osculum dilectionis et pacis ut apti sitis sacrosanctis mysteria Dei", and gives the kiss of peace to the deacon (vel puero), who passes it on to the people.
(17) The Illatio or Inlatio.-This is called Pr?fatio in the Roman and Conftestatio or Immolatio in the Gallican. With the Post-Sanctus it forms St. Isidore's fifth prayer. There are proper Illationes to every Mass. The form is similar to the Roman Preface, but generally longer and more diffuse, as in the Gallican. It is preceded by a longer dialogue than the usual one: "Introibo ad altare Dei mei. R. Ad Deum qui l?tificat juventutem meam. V.Aures ad Dominum. R. Habemus ad Dominum. V. Sursum Corda. R. Levemus ad Dominum. V. Deo ac D. N. J. C. qui est in c?lis dignas laudes, dignasque gratias referamus. R. Dignum et justum est. V. Dignum et justum est, etc." The Illatio ends in all manner of ways, but always leading by way of the angels to the Sanctus. This is "Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunt c?li et terra gloria majestatis tu?. Osanna filio David. Benedictus etc. Agyos, Agyos, Agyos, Kyrie o Theos."
(18) The Post-Sanctus, part of St. Isidore's fifth prayer, is variable, according to the day, but almost always begins "Vere sanctus, vere benedictus D. N. J. C.", and generally ends "IpseDominus ac Redemptor ?ternus". All liturgies except the Roman and the Romanized Celtic have some form of a very similar Post-Sanctus, which leads up to the Recital of the Institution. Even the Ambrosian has one for Easter Eve. The occurrence of a part of the Intercession after the Sanctus in the Roman makes a great difference here. The last words of the Mozarabic Post-Sanctus ought to anticipate "Qui pridie etc.", as in the Gallican, but there is an interpolation-"more suo adeo imperite ut interpolatio manifesta est", as Leslie says-as follows: "Adesto, adesto, Jesu bone Pontifex in medio nostri sicut fuisti in medio discipulorum tuorum, et sancti + fica hanc oblationem + ut sanctificata sumamus per manus sancti Angeli tui [cf. the clause "Supplices te rogamus" of the Roman Canon] sanct? Domine et Redemptor ?terne." The age of the interpolation is unknown, but it is probably much older than the Ximenian Missal, though it does not occur in the Missa Omnimoda in the Silos Liber Ordinum of 1052. It may have originated as a sort of parenthetical ejaculation (influenced by the Roman Canon) said secretly by the priest with bowed head before beginning the Recital of the Institution, which, like the Post- Sanctus, was possibly then said aloud. The present printed form of the Recital is that of 1 Corinthians 11:23-26: "D. N. J. C. in qua nocte tradebatur etc." This agrees with the principal Eastern liturgies, but the Gallican had "Qui pridie quam pateretur" or some variant thereof, and the Mozarabic must once have had the same, possibly (as Leslie suggests) combining both datings with "Qui pridie quam pateretur" and "in ipsa nocte qua tradebatur etc." The form in the Silos Liber Ordinum of 1052 begins as at present, and in Toledo 35.6 it begins "Quoniam Dominus Jesu in qua nocte." It is certain that the Roman form of the Words of Institution was not used by the Spanish Church before the mission of Zannello (see above) in 924. It was then that the practice arose of saying the Roman form, instead of what was written, and that is what is done now. In the Ximenian edition the Roman Words were not printed at first, but later were printed on separate slips and gummed on to the margin. In the later editions they appear as footnotes. Elevation is ordered in the printed Missal after the Consecration of each species.
(19) The Post-Pridie.-St. Isidore calls it confirmatio sacramenti, "ut oblatio qu? Deo offertur sanctificata per Sanctum Spiritum corpori Christi et sanguine confirmetur", which seems as if he took it to be an Epiklesis, needed to complete the consecration, but (in Ep. vii ad Redemptorem, sect. 2) he speaks also of "verba Dei : scilicet, Hoc est corpus meum", being the "substantia sacramenti". In the Gallican books there are several of these prayers with some sort of Invocation of the Holy Spirit, some quite unmistakable, others quite vague. The majority have no sign of any Epiklesis, and this is the case with the Mozarabic, perhaps fourteen or fifteen Masses have either a definite Epiklesis or what with some ingenuity and emendation can be made to look like one, while in the rest it is generally the Great Oblation, often with allusions to the day. It is followed by a fixed prayer resembling the clause Per quem h?c omnia in the Roman Canon, and a second elevation preceded by "Dominus sit semper vobiscum etc." and "Fidem quam corde credimus ore autem dicamus". On Sundays and most feasts sex capparum and quatuor capparum the Creed is recited; this has several verbal differences from the Roman form, among others, credimus, confitemur and expectamus, vivificantorem, adorandum et conglorificandum, Omousion Patri, hoc est ejusdem cum Patre substanti? etc. St. Isidore (De Eccl. Off., I, xvi) mentions the recitation of the Creed "tempore sacrificii", but with him sacrificium sometimes means the offertory, sometimes the whole Mass. On certain days, chiefly in Lent and in votive Masses, there is an Antiphona ad Confractionem Panis (cf. the Confractorium of the Ambrosian Rite), said instead of the "Fidem quam corde credimus etc." During it or the Creed the Fraction takes place. The Host is first divided into two halves, then one half is divided into five and the other into four parts. Seven of these particles are arranged in the form of across, five, named Corporatio (Incarnation), Nativitas, Circumcisio, Apparitio (Epiphany), and Passio forming the upright part, and two, named Mors and Resurrectio, the arms. These last are arranged on either side of the Particle Nativitas with the Gloria and Regnum, placed together on one side. (For instances of complicated Fractions, see CELTIC RITE; GALLICAN RITE.) Then the priest washes his fingers, "purget bene digitos", and the chalice being covered, says aloud "Memento pro vivis".
(20) The Ad Orationem Dominicam, St. Isidore's seventh and last prayer, varies with the day, and, like the Agyos after the Ad Missam Oratio is preceded by Oremus. It ends introducing the Pater Noster, sung by the priest, the choir responding Amen to each clause except "Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie" when the response is "Quia Deus es". The invariable Embolismus is a long intercessory prayer followed by the Commixture. The particle Regnum is held over the chalice, during Paschal time and on Corpus Christi, with the words "Vicit Leo ex tribu Juda, radix David, Alleluia. Qui sedes super cherubim, radix David, Alleluia", and then dropped into the chalice, with the words "Sancta Sanctis et conjunctio Corporis D. N. J. C. sit sumentibus et potantibus nobis ad veniam et defunctis fidelibus pr?stetur ad requiem."
(21) The Benediction.-The deacon proclaims "Humiliate vos ad Benedictionem", and the priest pronounces a Blessing in three, four, or five clauses, variable according to the day, with a response of Amen to each clause. In the Gallican Rite the long Benediction was reserved for bishops only, a short form (Pax et caritas D. N. J. C. et communicatio sanctorum omnium sit semper nobiscum) being said by priests. The Benedictions continued in France long after the extinction of the Gallican Rite (see GALLICAN RITE) and in England. In the Sarum Manual of 1554 directions are given for Episcopal Benedictions, with the same preliminary proclamation as in the Mozarabic.
(22) The Communion.-The choir sing a fixed responsory called Ad Accidentes, beginning "Gustate et videte", composed of Psalm 33:8-22, with Alleluias after each verse. There are variations in Lent and Eastertide (cf. CELTIC RITE; GALLICAN RITE). The same verses are mentioned by St. Cyril of Jerusalem and occur in some Eastern liturgies. Then follows the antiphon which answers to the Roman Communio which is usually "Refecti Christi Corpore et Sanguine, te laudamus, Domine. Alleluia (3)", with a variant in Lent "Repletum est gaudio os nostrum, etc." This is followed by the Post-Communion, a prayer or a Bidding Prayer variable with the day, but with a rather small selection, only a few days having separate proper Post-Communions of their own, four or five being used over and over again, one for Feasts of our Lord and another for saints' days, varied only in the name of the feast. During the singing of the Ad Accidentes and Communio the priest makes his communion, with private devotions not unlike those of the Roman Rite, but including the two "Ave in avum, etc.", passages which are found also in the Sarum and other local Missals. Just before his communion the priest holds the particle Regnum over the chalice saying aloud "Memento pro mortuis" (or "pro defunctis", for both forms are found).
(23) The Dismissal.-Of this there are two forms, that for ordinary days being "Missa acta est in nomine D. N. J. C. perficiamus cum pace. R. Deo gratias", and that for greater feasts, "Solemnia completa sunt in nomine D. N. J. C. votum nostrum sit acceptum cum pace. R. Deo gratias". Then follows "Salve Regina" with versicle and responses and the collect, "Concede nos famulos tuos etc.", which of course is not Mozarabic, and after that the Blessing "In unitate Sancti Spiritus benedicat vos Pater et Filius".
It will be seen that the fixed elements of this Mass are very few. These are: the Preparations; generally the Gloria; the Prayers etc. of the Offertory; the Nomina; the Pax, but not its prayer; the Sursum Corda; the Sanctus; the Recital of the Institution with its preliminary prayer; a prayer following the Post-Pridie; the Creed; the priest's part of the Fraction, Commixture, and Communion; the Lord's Prayer and Embolismus, but not its introduction; and the Salve Regina and Blessing. The variables, which in point of time and written space take up by far the larger proportion of the Mass, are: The Officium (Introit); the Oratio after the Gloria, the Prophecy, the Psallendo; the Epistle; the Gospel; the Lauda; the Sacrificium; Ad Missam Oratio; Alia Oratio; Post Nomina; Ad Pacem; Illatio; Post-Sanctus; Post-Pridie; Antiphona ad Confractionem Panis; Ad Orationem Dominicam; the Benediction; Ad Accidentes; Communio; Post-Communion; the Dismissal. To these may be added the additional Canticles on certain days.
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