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Jenner H. Mozarabic Rite - 4. The divine office.

Henry Jenner

Mozarabic Rite - The divine office

The present Mozarabic Divine Office differs from all others in several points. As a general rule, which applies to every other rite, Eastern or Western, the Divine Office may be defined as the recitation of the Psalter with accompanying antiphons, lections, prayers, canticles, etc., and the nucleus is the more or less regular distribution of the Psalter through the Canonical Hours, generally of one week. In the Mozarabic Rite there is now no such distribution of the Psalter. Psalms are used at all the Hours except Vespers-when, except in fasting time, there are none-but they are as a rule fixed psalms. In the first three weeks of Lent and during the three-day fasts before the Epiphany, St. Cyprian's Day, and St. Martin's Day, and the four-day fast before Pentecost, there are three selected psalms (or sometimes one or two psalms divided into three) at Matins, Terce, Sext, and generally at None, and usually one selected psalm at Vespers, but there is no consecutive order; some psalms are repeated many times, while others are omitted altogether. In the week after the first Sunday after the Epiphany, psalms i : xxi, xxiii, xxiv are said consecutively at Matins and Terce, three psalms or divisions of psalms at each until the Thursday, two at Terce on the Friday, and none except the usual fixed psalms on the Saturday. In the manuscripts (e.g. in the Psalter in Add. manuscript 30851) there are indications of a more regular distribution of the psalms. At Matins, which is a morning and not a night Office, there are no lessons like that of the Roman Rite and its variants, but a certain similarity of construction exists in the sets of three Antiphon? followed by a responsory, which sets, though normally there is only one, are increased to two, three, four, and even five on certain days, though this increase is rather capricious and inconsistent. The SilosLectionary of 1059 consists of lessons for the now obsolete Night Office; such lessons as there are now occur at Lauds, where there is one variable with the day, which is sometimes called Prophetia, and at Prime, Terce, Sext, and None, where there are two short Lessons, a Prophetia from one of the Prophets or from the Apocalypse and an Epistola from one of the Epistles. These have about four variations with the seasons, except during the fasts, when there are long, additional lessons at Terce, Sext, and None (cf. the lessons at Terce during Lent in the Ambrosian Rite), varying every day and also of varying number. Another peculiarity is the existence of an extra hour, called Aurora (also Ordo Peculiaris), before Prime. In a Liber Ordinum at Silos, besides the usual Hours and this Ordo Peculiaris, Offices are given for all the intermediate hours of the twelve, as well as ante Completa, post Completa, and ante Lectulum. Vespers, Matins, and Lauds are very variable, but there is much less variability in the Lesser Hours and Compline. A considerable part of the Office is made up of responsoria, constructed on similar principles to those of the Roman Rite, but called by the various names of Antiphona, Lauda, Sono (or Sonos), or Matutinarium according to their position in the Office. (Antiphona also means the antiphon of a psalm or canticle, which is of the same form as in the Roman Rite.) They vary in form, but the general plan is: Verse, Response, Verse, repetition of first Response, Gloria, second repetition of Response or of first Verse and Response. The first Lauda at Vespers and the Sono are generally without the Gloria and the second repetition of the Response. These various responsories and also the psalms, canticles, etc. are generally followed by Orationes, which are usually founded on them, with or without special reference to the day or season.

The construction of the Hours is as follows: Before every Hour except Lauds, which follows on after Matins: Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison; Pater Noster; Ave Maria, are said secretly, kneeling. Then, standing, In nomine D. N. J. C. lumen cum pace. R. Deo Gratias. V. Dominus sit semper vobiscum. R. Et cum spiritu tuo. This elongated form of the Dominus vobiscum is said very frequently after collects and responsories and in various other places. The form of the Gloria, which also occurs very frequently, is: Gloria et honor Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto in s?cula s?culorum. Amen.

Vespers (Ad Vesperos).-(1) Lauda followed by its oratio. Alternative names are psalmus and vespertinum, and the words are nearly always from the psalms. This form of Lauda has no Gloria. (2) Sono on Sundays and feasts, but not on ferials except in paschal time. This is also without Gloria. (3) Alleluia, followed by an antiphona with Gloria. Sometimes there are two antiphona with Gloria. Sometimes there are two antiphona, each followed by its oratio. In Lent, on the fasts, and in the week after the Octave of the Epiphany, a selected psalm with the Octave of the Epiphany, a selected psalm with its antiphon takes the place of this antiphona. (4) Second Lauda, with Alleluias interspersed in rather variable fashions, with Gloria. The Regula in the beginning of the Breviary has this definition: "Antiphona est qu? dicitur sine Alleluia; et Lauda qu? cum Alleluia dicitur", but this is not an exhaustive definition, and, as in the Roman Rite, Alleluia is not used in Lent. (5) Hymn. This of course varies with the day. There is a great wealth of hymns in the Mozarabic Breviary. (6) Supplicatio, a Bidding Prayer generally beginning "Oremus Redemptorem mundi D. N. J. C., cum omni supplicatione rogemus", and continuing with a clause applicable to the day, with response: "Pr?sta ?terne omnipotens Deus", and Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison. (7) Capitula, a prayer of the diffuse Gallican type, often embodying the idea of the Supplicatio. (8) Pater noster, divided into petitions with a response of Amen to each except "Panem nostrum etc." when it is "Quia Deus es", and followed by an occasionally varying Embolismus. (9) Benedictio in four clauses with Amen after each, and preceded by "Humiliate vos ad benedictionem". (10) Third Lauda, with Gloria. Sometimes there are more than one of these, each followed by an oratio. On feasts sex capparum the altar is censed while this Lauda is sung. (11) Then follow Commemorations which are in the form of a short Lauda and oratio. (12) Dismissal: "In nomine D. N. J. C. perficiamus in pace. R. Deo Gratias." The orationes at Vespers, unlike those at Matins and Lauds, begin immediately without "Dominus sit semper vobiscum". Each has two Amens, one before and one after the final clause, "Per misericordiam etc."

Compline (Completoria).-(1) Psalm 4:7-10, followed by three Alleluias. (2) Psalm 133, followed by three Alleluias. (3) Six selected psalms and other verses. (4) Hymn, "Sol Angelorum respice", with Psalm 12:4, as versicle and response. (5) Psalm 90. (6) Psalm 90:5 and Psalm 133:3-5, with "Memor esto mei Domine" as response to each verse, and Gloria. (7) Hymn, "Cultor Dei memento". (8) Three Supplicationes of similar form to that at Vespers. (9) Pater noster, with Embolismus. (10) Benedictio. (11) Dismissal, as at Vespers. (12) Commemoratio. Psalm 16:8-9, as Lauda, followed by an oratio. (13) "In nomine D. N. J. C. in hac nocto dormiamus et requescamus in pace. R. Deo Gratias". There are a few additions on Saturdays, the principal Feasts, in Lent (when there is also a short "Ordo ante Completoria"), and "De traditione Domini" (Passiontide) after the psalms, some variant hymns, and "Miserationes" with variant capitul? and Benedictiones for each day of the week, and for the "Traditio Domini".

Matins (Ad Matutinum).-The week-day form is: (1) Antiphon of Our Lady, Ave Regina C?lorum. (2) In nomine D. N. J. C. etc., as before the other Hours. (3) Generally Psalm 50 with a variable antiphon (in the Roman sense) before and after it, and an oratio. Sometimes Psalm 3 is used here (e.g. during Lent and on other fasts and during Paschal time), and sometimes Psalm 56. (4) The Antiphon?. These are in sets of three antiphon? and a responsorium. The last only differs from the antiphon? in name. To each is appended its oratio. During the first three weeks of Lent and the fasts of Epiphany, Pentecost, St. Cyprian, and St. Martin, and on four days of the week after the Octave of the Epiphany, three varying psalms with antiphons and orationes followed by a responsorium and oratio take the place of the antiphon?. There is usually only one set of Antiphon? etc., but there may be (e.g. on the Feast of Sts. Fructuosus, Augurius, and Eulogius) as many as five. On Sundays Matins begins with the hymn "?terne rerum conditur", and except during Paschal time (when only Psalm 3 is said), there are three psalms (3, 50 and 56) with their orationes, instead of only one of these.

Lauds (In Laudibus) follows immediately on Matins with no preliminary except "Dominus sit semper vobiscum". Its order is: (1) A variable Canticle from the Old and occasionally from the New Testament, with an antiphon before and after it. Sometimes an oratio follows. On Christmas Day the Magnificat is said in addition to the first Canticle and on the Annunciation instead of it. (2) On Sundays and feasts, the Canticle "Benedictus es Domine Deus Patrum nostrorum" (Daniel, iii, 52 sq.), which includes a very much compressed form of the Benedicite. It is sometimes followed by an oratio. On ferials an antiphona or responsorium, called Matutinarium, takes the place of this canticle. (3) The Sono, generally the same as that at Vespers. This, as at Vespers, is not used on ferials, except in Paschal time. (4) The Laudate Psalms (148, 149, 150) preceded by a variable Lauda. On some ferials only Psalm 150 is ordered. (5) The Prophetia, a lection from the Old Testament, or in Paschal time from the Apocalypse. (6) The Hymn of the day. (7) Supplicatio, as at Vespers. (8) Capitula, as at Vespers. (9) Pater noster and Embolismus, as at Vespers. (10) Lauda, as at Vespers. (11) Benedictio, as at Vespers. The Vesper order of these last two is reversed. The last six are as a rule a different set from those at Vespers. (12) Commemorationes, as at Vespers. (13) Dismissal, as at Vespers. In Lent and in the other fasts, Lauds begins with Psalm l and its antiphon. On these occasions Psalm 3 is used at Matins.

Aurora.-A very simple office, without variations, said before Prime only on ferials. (1) Psalm 69 and 118, pts. 1-3, under the one antiphon, "Deus in adjutorium etc." (2) Lauda. (3) Hymn "Jam meta noctis transiit", with its versicle, of which there are three variants. (4) Kyrie eleison etc. (5) Pater noster with Embolismus, said as at Vespers. (6) Preces, a short litany for all sorts and conditions of men. There are two forms of this.

Prime, Terce, Sext, None.-These are constructed on the same plan, and may be taken together. The order is: (1) The Psalms. At Prime, seven (lxvi; cxliv, 1-12; cxliv, 13-21; cxii; cxviii, pts. 4-6); at Terce, four (xciv, cxviii, pts. 7-9); at Sext, four (liii; cxviii, pts. 16, 17, 18); at None, four (cxlv; cxxi; cxxii; cxxiii), in each case under one antiphon. (2) Responsorium, varying with the day. These variations are chiefly "commons" of classes of saints and for Lent, Advent, Christmas, and Easter. The Psalms and Responsoria are without orationes. (3) Prophetia, a lection from the Old Testament or Apocalypse. (4) Epistola, a lection from the Epistles. At Prime these lections do not vary and are very short; at Terce, Sext, and None there is more variety, and during Lent and on the fasts, when these Hours are differently arranged, there are very long lections. (5) Lauda, with Alleluias or "Laus tibi etc." (6) Hymn. There are a few variants for different seasons in each hour. (7) At Prime on Sundays and Feasts here follow the Te Deum, Gloiria in Excelsis, and Credo; on ferials, instead of the first two, the Benedictus es Domine Deus (Daniel 3) and the Miserere (Ps. l) are said. At the other three Hours the Clamores, short supplications for mercy and pardon (a different set for each Hour), are said here. (8) Supplicatio, as at Vespers. (9) Capitula, as at Vespers. (10) Pater noster etc., as at Vespers. (11) Benedictio, as at Vespers. The last four have only a few variants, and generally have reference to the usual events commemorated at the Hours. On the fasts and in the week after Epiphany there are special lessons varying in number, and these are generally followed by three psalms, with their antiphons and orationes and a responsorium with its oratio, as at the Matins of those seasons. Then follow Preces, the Hymn, Capitula, and the rest as on the other days.

At the end of Vespers, Compline, and Lauds certain fixed Commemorationes, appropriate to the Hour, are said, and after Compline and the Lesser Hours, Salve Regina is said throughout the year, but after Lauds, Salve Regina, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Ecce Maria genuit Salvatorem, Sub tuum pr?sidium, and Regina c?li according to the season. There are many other variations, for at Vespers, Matins, and Lauds nearly everything is variable according to the day and the season, and a good deal is so at the Lesser Hours. Some few things may have been altered and added since, but the Divine Office as described above, which is that in the present use, does not seem to differ materially in structure from that indicated in the tenth and eleventh century manuscripts in the British Museum, except that there were formerly also certain Night Offices-"Ordo ante Lectulum", "Ad Nocturnos", "Ad Medium Noctis" etc.-which are given in Add. 30851 and elsewhere. Possibly these were only for monastic use.

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