Литература на иностранных языках - Bibliotheca

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Jenner H. Mozarabic Rite - 2. Manuscripts and editions.

Henry Jenner

Mozarabic Rite - Manuscripts and editions

Of the existing manuscripts of the Mozarabic Rite many, as might be expected, are in the cathedral chapter library at Toledo, but until quite recent times the Benedictine Abbey of Silos, between thirty and forty miles to the south of Burgos, possessed nearly as many. Most of these are now elsewhere, some having been purchased in 1878 by the British Museum, and others by the Paris Bibliotheque Nationale. There are other manuscripts in the Royal Library, in the Library of the Royal Academy of History, and in the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid, in the Cathedral Library at Leon, in the University Library at Santiago de Compostela, and in the chapter library at Verona. It will be seen from the list which follows that nearly all the existing manuscripts come either from Toledo or from the neighbourhood of Burgos. There is also an interesting collection of transcripts, made from 1752 to 1756 under the direction of the Jesuit Father, A. M. Burriel, from Toledo manuscripts in the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid. All the original manuscripts are anterior to the conquest of Toledo in 1085, most of them being of the tenth or eleventh century. The arrangement of the books of that period was peculiar. The variable parts of theMass and the Divine Office, whether sung by the choir or said by the celebrant or the deacon, were usually combined in one book, a sort of mixed sacramentary, antiphonary, and lectionary, usually with musical neumes to the sung portions. Most of the manuscripts are very imperfect, and it is not quite clear under what name this composite book was known. Probably it was called "Antiphonarium" or "Antiphonale". But such books existed also as antiphoners with choir parts only and sacramentaries with the priest's part only, and the usual modern practice is to call the composite books by the descriptive name of "Offices and Masses". They contain under each day the variables of Vespers and Matins and of the Mass. Sometimes one Mass is made fuller by the addition of some of the invariables, as a model of a complete Mass. The Missale Omnium Offerentium, the separate book answering to the Ordinary of the Mass (see Section V, THE MASS), does not exist in any early manuscript, but there is a Missa Omnimoda in the principal Silos manuscript of the "Liber Ordinum", which is a model Mass of the type found in that book. The book of "Offices and Masses" was supplemented for the Divine Office by the Psalter, which in its fullest form (as in the British Museum Add. manuscript 30851) contained the whole book of Psalms, the Canticles, chiefly from the Old Testament, sixty- seven to a hundred in number, the Hymns for the year, and the "Hor? Canonic?." For the Mass it would seem to require no supplement, but the Prophecies, Epistles, and Gospels are found also in a separate book known as "Liber Comitis", "Liber Comicus" or "Comes". The Prayers of Vespers and Matins and the Prayers which follow the Gloria in Excelsis at Mass are also found combined in the "Liber Orationum", and the Homilies read at Mass are collected in the "Homiliarum", though some are also given in the composite "Offices and Masses". The occasional services of theRitual and Pontifical are found in the "Liber Ordinum", which contains also a number of Masses. There is one manuscript (at Silos) which contains the Lessons of the now obsolete Nocturnal Office.

The following are the manuscripts of the several books:

Office and Masses.-(a) Toledo, Chapter Library, 35.4, eleventh century. Contains from Easter to the twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost. Belonged to the parish of St. Olalla (Eulalia) at Toledo. (b) 35.5, tenth or eleventh century, 194 ff. Contains from the first Sunday of Lent to the third day of Easter week. (c) 35.6, eleventh century, 199 ff. Contains from Easter to Pentecost and feasts as far as SS. Just and Pastor (6 Aug.). (d) Madrid, Royal Academy of History, F. 190, tenth or eleventh century, 230 ff. Belonged to the Monastery of San Milan (St. ?milianus) de la Cogolla in the Rioja. (e) Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, formerly at Toledo (35.2), eleventh century, 121 ff. Contains the Lenten Offices up to Palm Sunday. Colophon "Finitur deo gratias hic liber per manus ferdinandi johannis presbiteri eglesie sanctarum juste et rufine civitatis Toleti in mense Aprilis." (f) Silos, eleventh century, paper octavo, 154 ff. (g) British Museum, Add. 30844, tenth century. Contains Offices and Masses for the Annunciation (18 Dec.), St. Thomas, Christmas, St. Stephen, St. Eugenia (27 Dec.), St. James the Less (28 Dec.), St. James the Great (30 Dec., but called St. John), St. Columba (31 Dec.), the Circumcision, Epiphany, St. Peter's Chair (22 Feb.), the Ascension, and the Sunday after the Ascension. The Mass for the Annunciation is a model Mass with some of the invariable parts inserted. Homilies are inserted in some of the Masses, and the liturgical part is preceeded by a collection of Homilies. Belonged to the Abbey of Silos. (h) British Museum, Add. 30845, tenth century. Contains Offices and Masses for the Feast of St. Quiriacus (4 or 20 May), and of Feasts from St. John Baptist (24 June) to St. Emilian (12 Nov.), thirty-seven in all, though not all in their proper order. Belonged to the Abbey of Silos. (i) British Museum, Add. 30846, tenth century. Contains Offices and Masses for Easter Week, followed by the Canticles for the same period, and the Hymns for Eastertide to Pentecost, including the Feasts of Sts. Engratia (16 April), Torquatus and Philip (1 May), and the Invention of the Cross (3 May).

Antiphoners.-There is one manuscript which describes itself as "Antiphonarium de toto anni circulo, a festivitate S. Aciscli [17 Nov.] usque ad finem", containing thechoir parts, but not the priest's part of the Offices and Masses. This is the book known, quite erroneously, as the "Antiphoner of King Wamba", preserved in the Cathedral Library at Leon. It is a vellum manuscript of the eleventh century (Era 1107 = A.D. 1069), 200 ff., transcribed by one Arias, probably from a much older book, which perhaps did belong to King Wamba (672-80). Dom Ferotin describes it as very complete.

Sacramentaries.-(a) Toledo Chapter Library, 35.3, late tenth century, 177 ff. Contains Masses for the year. In the initial of that for St. Peter's Chair (22 Feb.) are the words "Elenus Abbas Acsi indignus scripsit". It belonged to the parish of St. Olalla (Eulalia) at Toledo. Dom Ferotin describes it as a Sacramentary, and says that it is complete. An edition by him will soon be published. (b) There is another manuscript at Toledo mentioned but with no identifiable number by Burriel, Eguren, and Simonet, which is said by them to contain "Missas omnes tam de tempore quam de sanctis per totum anni circulum". There is a copy of it among theBurriel manuscripts at Madrid, and Eguren ascribes the original to the ninth century.

Psalters.-(a) Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, formerly at Toledo (35.1), tenth century, 174 ff. Contains the Psalter with antiphons, the Canticles, and the Hymnal. On f. 150 are the words "Abundantius presbyter librum mauro presbytero scriptor" (sic). The prologue of the Hymnal is an acrostic in verse which reads (Mavricvs obtante Veraniano edidyt". This manuscript was used by Cardinal Lorenzana for the Psalter, Canticles, and Hymnal in his edition of the Mozarabic Breviary. There is a copy among the Burriel manuscripts (b) British Museum, Add. 30851, eleventh century. Contains Psalter, Canticles, Hymnal, and "Hor? Canonic?", the last (though imperfect) being much fuller than the printed Breviary and containing the now obsolete Night Offices, as well as the other Hours and a number of offices for special occasions. It has been edited by J. P. Gilson for the Henry Bradshaw Society. (c) Santiago de Compostela, University Library, Cabinete de Reservados No. 1, dated Era 1093 (= A.D. 1055), "Petrus erat scriptor, Frictosus denique pictor." Contains Psalter, 100 Canticles, and the Night Offices, but not the Hymnal. The Psalter is preceded by a poem addressed by Florus of Lyons to Hyldradus (here called Ysidorus Abbas), Abbot of Novalese near Susa in Piedmont (825-7). There is a full description of this manuscript in Ferotin's "Deux Manuscrits wisigothiques de la Bibliotheque de Ferdinand I". (d) Royal Library, Madrid, 2. J. 5, dated Era 1097 (= A.D. 1059). Contains ninety-nine Canticles nearly agreeing with the Compostela Psalter. There is a formula of confession, in which the names of Queen Sancia and the Infanta Urraca appear, and which contain an extraordinary list of sins. The manuscript belonged in the fourteenth century to the Benedictine monastery of St. Maria de Aniago near Simancas, which in 1436 became for a time a Mozarabic chapter (see Section I. HISTORY AND ORIGIN), then to the Colegio de Cuenca at Salamanca. It is fully described in Ferotin's "Deux Manuscrits wisigothiques". (e) A Psalter and Canticles of the tenth century, 122 ff., sold at the Silos sale in 1878, present owner unknown.

Liber Comicus, Liber Comitis, Comes, containing the Prophecies, Epistles, and Gospels used at Mass. (a) Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Nouv. Acquis. Lat. 2171, eleventh century. Belonged to Silos from 1067, when it was given to the abbey by Sancho de Tabatiello to 1878. Edited by Dom Morin (Maredsous, 1893). (b) Toledo, Chapter Library, 35.8, ninth or tenth century. Imperfect, containing only from "Dominica post infantum" to the Saturday of the fourth week of Lent. (c) Leon, Cathedral Library. A little earlier than 1071, when it was given to the cathedral by Bishop Pelagius. Begins with the first Sunday of Advent and ends with what it calls "the twenty-fourth Sunday". According to Dom Ferotin it is rich in Votive Masses, but incomplete in much else. (d) Madrid, Royal Academy of History, No. 22 (old number F. 192), dated Era 1111 (= A.D. 1073). Written by Petrus Abbas. Belonged to the Benedictine abbey of San Milan de la Cogolla.

Homiliarium.-(a) Toledo Chapter Library, 131 ff., mentioned by Burriel and Simonet. A copy of 1753 is among the Burriel manuscripts at Madrid. (b) Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Nouv. Acquis. Lat., 2176, eleventh century, 390 ff. Contains Homilies from Christmas onward. Formerly belonged to Silos. (c) Nouv. Acquis. Lat. 2177, eleventh century, 770 ff. Contains homilies from Epiphany to Christmas. Belonged to Silos. (d) British Museum, Add. 30853, eleventh century, 324 ff. Contains Homilies and a Penitentiale.

Liber Ordinum.-(a) Silos, dated Era 1090 (= A.D. 1052), 344 ff. Copied by Bartolom?us Presbyter for Domingo, Abbot of San Prudentio de Laturce in the Rioja. Dom Ferotin conjectures that it is the very copy sent in 1065 to Alexander II. San Prudentio was a cell of Albelda. Of the four books sent to Rome one was "Liber Ordinum majoris Albaldensis Cenobii", and one of the deputation, Eximino of Oca, was a personal friend of St. Dominic of Silos. The manuscript contains a very full collection of the Ritual and Pontifical Offices and a large number of votive and other Masses. Fully edited and described by Dom Ferotin in his "Liber Ordinum". (b) Silos, dated Era 1077 (= A.D. 1039). Written by Joannes Presbyter. Contains Calendar, Baptism, Visitation etc. of the Sick. Commendation of the Deaf, Matrimony, a large collection of prayers and blessings, and Votive Masses. Edited by Dom Ferotin. (c) Silos, eleventh century, 142 ff. Contains also Hours, which are offices for every hour of the twelve, as well as Ordo Peculiaris (Aurora), ante Completa, ad Completa, post Completa, ante lectulum, and in nocturnis. Edited, except the Hours, by Dom Ferotin. (d) Madrid, Royal Academy of History, No. 56 (old number F. 224), eleventh century, 155 ff. Belonged to San Milan de la Cogolla in the Rioja. Contains a Ritual and a number of Masses. Edited by Dom Ferotin.

The descriptions of all the above manuscripts (except those in the British Museum, which the writer has examined for himself) are worked out from those given by Ferotin, Ewald and Loewe, Simonet, Eguren, and the list of the Burriel transcripts in Fernandez de Navarrete's "Coleccion de Documentos" (see bibliography). Very full descriptions of the principal manuscripts will appear in Dom Ferotin's forthcoming edition of the Mozarabic Sacramentary. The lists of Toledo manuscripts given by Lorenzana and Pinius are too vague for purposes of identification. The four manuscripts (Add. 30847-30850), described in the Catalogue of Additional Manuscripts of the British Museum for 1878 as Mozarabic, are all Roman, three being Romano-monastic and one secular.

Printed Editions: Missale Mixtum or Complete Missal.-Cardinal Ximenes's edition, Toledo, 1500, fol. Alexander Leslie's edition, Rome, 1755, 4to. Caridinal Lorenzana's edition, with Leslie's notes and additional notes by F. Arevalo, Rome, 1804, fol. Reprint of Leslie's edition in Migne, P.L., LXXXV, Paris, 1850.

Missale Omnium Offerentium, containing, besides the "Missa Omnium Offerentium", the Lesser Hours and the Commons. Edition by Lorenzana and F. Fabian y Fuero. Angelopoli (Los Angeles, Mexico), 1770, fol. Reprint, Toledo, 1875, fol. The "Missa Omnium Offerentium" is given also in La Bigne's "Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum", 1609, 1618, 1654; in J. M. Neale's "Tetralogia Liturgica", 1849; in Hammond's "Ancient Liturgies", 1878; translated and edited by T. Kranzfelder in Reithmayer's "Bibliothek der Kirchenvater", No. 215, 1869, and in J. Perez's "Devocionario Mozarabe", Toledo, 1903.

Breviary.-Cardinal Ximenes's edition, Toledo, 1502, fol. Cardinal Lorenzana's edition, Madrid, 1775, fol. Reprint in Migne (P.L., LXXXVI), Paris, 1850.

Liber Ordinum. Edited by Dom M. Ferotin in Cabrol and Le Clerc's "Monumenta Ecclesi? Liturgica", V, Paris, 1904, quarto.

Liber Orationum.-Printed in Bianchini's edition of the works of Cardinal Tommasi, Rome, 1741, fol.

Psalter, Canticles, Hymnal, and Hours.-In Lorenzana's Breviary of 1775 and the Migne reprint, from the Toledo manuscript. In the Henry Bradshaw Society's Publications, vol. XXX, edited by J. P. Gilson, London, 1905, from the British Museum manuscript

Liber Comicus.-Edited by Dom G. Morin from the Paris manuscript in "Anecdota Maredsolana", I, Maredsous, 1893.

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