Cabrol F. Chapter VI-5. The Mass of the Faithful. Conclusion.
THE MASS OF THE WESTERN RITES By the Right Reverend Dom Fernand Cabrol
THE MASS IN SPAIN
THE MASS OF THE FAITHFUL
"The Credo."--The Spanish were the first in the West to introduce the symbol of Nicea-Constantinople into the Mass. In the East the custom already existed, and in 568 Justinus the Younger made it a law. In 597 the Third Council of Toledo issued an edict: "Ut prius quam Dominica dicatur oratio, voce clara a populo" (symbolum Constantinopolitanum) "decantetur, quo fides vera," etc. This is a fresh example of the eagerness shown by the Spanish Bishops to follow the customs of Constantinople. From Spain the usage spread into Gaul; but Rome held out long, and only yielded in the eleventh century. The true place of this symbol is in the rite of Baptism and it is not an essential element of the Mass. The Gallican churches sang it after the Gospel, at the end of the Mass of the catechumens, and this too is the place given to it by Rome. Like the Greeks and Orientals, the Spanish, by putting it at the end of the Canon, before the "Pater," rather disturbed the general equilibrium of this part of the Mass; and, moreover, diminished accordingly the importance of the "Pater." This story of the insertion of the "Credo" in the Mass is fairly well known; and we shall say no more about it. (Cf. Mgr. Batiffol, "Lecons sur la Messe," p. II. See also Lesley's note, which, as is always the case, is highly instructive, and that of Dom Ferotin quoted on the next page. For rather curious variants of the Spanish text--the "Credimus," the "Omousion," the "Ex Patre et Filio procedentem," etc., cf. Lesley, P.L., loc. cit., col. 555 seq., and "Liber Moz.," col. 37.)
The "Liber Mozarabicus" contains a formula of introduction to the "Credo: Omnes qui Christi sanguinis effusione," etc., which is not met with in any printed book, nor even, according to Dom Ferotin, in any MS. ("Liber Moz.," ibid.).
"Fraction.-"-In the Mozarabic rite the Fraction is rather complicated. The Priest divides the Host in the middle, placing half on the paten; the other half is divided into five parts, which are also placed on the paten. He then divides the first part into four. The nine particles so obtained are arranged in the form of a Cross, and each receives its name: "Corporatio" (or Incarnation), "Nativitas," "Circumcisio," "Apparitio" (or Epiphany), "Passio," "Mors," "Resurrectio," and, separately, "Gloria," "Regnum." This figure is twice given in P.L., loc. cit., cols. 118 and 557. St. Ildephonsus alludes to the names of these fragments (De cognitione baptismi, c. xix.; cf. "Liber Moz.," p. xxxiii.). It is unnecessary to say that all these rites are not ancient, any more than it is an ancient practice to make the Memento of the Living here, since at the beginning of the Mass of the Faithful a Memento of the Living and the Dead has already been made. When the "Credo" is finished the "Pater" is said. The Fraction of the bread, a rite so important in its origin that it gave its name to the Mass, has become here, as in the Celtic liturgies, so complicated as to fall sometimes into mere superstition; it is usually accompanied by the singing of the "Confractio," which is to be found in most liturgies. In this rite it is called "Laudes ad confractionem." (Cf. "Liber Ordinum," col 239, and "Liber Moz.," p. xxiii. Cf. also our article "Fraction," in DACL, and P.L., cols. 118 and 557.)
"The Pater."--The "Pater" is recited in the Mozarabic Mass as it is in most liturgies. It is preceded by a prelude which varies according to the day; it is almost always a paraphrase analogous to the Roman prelude, but generally more extensive and more complicated. The "Pater" ends with an embolism of which we shall presently speak (P.L., col 118, cf. 559-591). It is a rather singular thing that the prelude begins with the word "Oremus" which is sung by the Priest. But this rubric is of a later age like that which prescribes "Oremus" before "Agios." In the church of Spain in ancient times it was the Deacon and not the Priest who said "Oremus;" the Deacon, too, made the other interventions: "Flectamus genua, Erigite vos, Levate aures ad Dominum, Silentium facite." St. Isidore says of the Deacons: "Hi voces tonitruorum, ipsi enim, clara voce, in modum praeconis, admoneant cunctos sive in orando, sive in flectendo genua, sive in psallendo, sive in lectionibus audiendo," etc. ("De offic. eccl.," I, II, c. viii.). Etherius also alludes to them ("Adv. Elipand.," I, I). The same custom is noted by the pseudo-Germain (cf. col. 1079)
The presence of the "Pater" in the Mass in most liturgies, since the fourth century at least, is a well-known fact. In Spain, however, certain Priests only said it on Sunday. The Fourth Council of Toledo, therefore, proclaimed it of daily obligation (Canon 10). But it was not said everywhere in the same manner. In Spain the Priest begins "Pater noster qui es in coelis," and the people answer "Amen," and so on with all the petitions. At "Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie" they respond: "Quia tu es Deus;" and after the word "tentationem," at the end: "Sed libera nos a malo, Amen." The "Pater" is the seventh and last of the prayers of the Mass according to St. Isidore ("De offic.," I, I, c. xv.; P.L., loc. cit., coL 559 seq.).
The embolism is not variable as it is with the Gallicans. It is a paraphrase of the last petition in the form of a liturgical prayer, "Liberati a malo," etc. (P.L., col 119). The "Liberati" is sung, like the "Pater;" the same custom obtains in the rite of Lyons, and even in that of Rome on Good Friday.
"Commixtion."--After the embolism the Priest takes from the paten that fragment of the Host which corresponds to "Regnum" (see "Fraction, ut sup."), holds it over the chalice, and lets it fall therein with the words: "Sancta sanctis et conjunctio corporis Domini nostri Jesu Christi: sit sumentibus et potantibus nobis ad veniam: et fidelibus defunctis prestetur ad requiem." From Easter to Pentecost he said instead, with a loud voice, thrice these words: "Vicit leo de tribu Juda radix David," to which the people responded: "Qui sedes super Cherubim radix David, Alleluia" (P.L., loc. cit., col 119).
The "Sancta sanctis" is an ancient Eastern formula, to which St. Cyril of Jerusalem alluded; it is preserved in the greater number of Eastern liturgies. It loses a little of its strength here, because it is said in a low voice, and because it forms part of the prayer of "Commixtion." Lesley rightly supposes that formerly the "Sancta sanctis" was said aloud in Spain and in Gaul, as it was with the Easterns, and that it was followed, as in Gaul, by the singing of the "Trecanum," a hymn in honor of the Trinity. With the Easterns also the "Sancta sanctis" is a doxology (P.L., loc. cit., col 561, note a). We may note that Dom Martene has pointed out in two MSS. of Angers the formulas: "Sanctum cum sanctis," and "Sancta cum sanctis et commixtio," etc. ("De ant. Eccl. Rit.," I, I c. iv. art. 9).
As for the formula of Commixtion, "et sanguinis" must naturally be added to "corporis," as "potantibus nobis" suggests. It corresponds with the same rite in the Roman Canon, "Haec commixtio et consecratio corporis et sanguinis," etc., and to that of the Ambrosian Canon which is almost the same. The rite of "Commixtio" itself is ancient, and common to most liturgies, but here, as for the Fraction, a great variety of customs exists. We content ourselves with referring to our article "Messe," in which these different customs are noticed. The note may also be read in which Lesley describes and compares these rites (loc. cit., coL 561, note c, cf. also "Liber Ordinum," pp. 239-241, and "Liber Moz.," p. xxiii.).
"Blessing."--The rite of Blessing in Spain, as in Gaul, is placed after the "Pater." The Deacon warns the people: Humiliate vos benedictioni. Dominus sit semper vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo." The Priest then blesses them with a variable formula, which is interspersed with "Amens" like the "Pater" (see, e.g., P.L., coL 119).
There are a few differences as to the exterior form of this blessing between the churches of Gaul and those of Spain, but the fact of a blessing at this moment is common to both of them; and in both cases the rites present striking analogies. The African church had also this custom of Episcopal blessing, as may be seen by the letter of the Council of Carthage to Innocent I against Pelagius and Celestinus, and by letter CLXXXIX of St. Augustine to John of Jerusalem. But neither the Roman liturgy nor those of the Greek and Eastern churches followed this custom. We find, indeed, formulas of Episcopal blessings in the Roman collections, but they are Gallican additions. The Sixth Council of Toledo (c. 18) recalls the practice of Spain in these words: "ut post orationem dominicam et conjunctionem panis et calicis, benedictio in populum segnatur, et tum demum sacramentum corporis et sanguinis Domini sumatur" (Canon 18, P.L., col. 592, note b).
"Communion.-"-The Communion in the Mozarabic rite comprehends a collection of rites and formulas which must first be described: The salutation of the people by "Dominus sit semper vobiscum;" singing of the "Gustate et videte" and other verses, with doxology "Gloria et honor Patri." During the chanting of the "Gustate" the Priest takes that particle of the Host which answers to the word "Gloria," holds it over the chalice while reciting "Panem celestem," and then says: "Memento pro mortuis," reciting the prayer: "Dominus meus," etc.
He makes the sign of the Cross with the Host, consumes the particle which was in his hand, covers the chalice, and consumes the other fragments of the Host, following the appointed order. He then places the paten on the chalice, saying: "Ave in evum celestis potus," etc. He takes the Blood, and says the prayer: "Dominus meus Pater et Filius," etc. The choir sings "Refecti corpore et sanguine." The Priest goes to the corner of the altar and recites a prayer beginning with the words of the preceding chant: "Refecti corpore et sanguine," etc. This is the prayer of Thanksgiving, which closes with the doxology: Per misericordiam tuam, etc. (P.L., col. 120; ef. also cols. 554, 561, 566, and "Liber Ordinum," 241, 242 "Liber Mozar.," p. xxiii.).
The Deacon intervenes at the Communion with the order: "Locis vestris accedite." Each then must take his place according to a strictly established order: higher clergy, lower clergy, men, women. To each of the faithful he gives a part of the Blood, for Communion was received under both kinds. The anthem "Gustate" is called "Ad accedentes."
"Completuria and end of the Mass.-"-The "Liber Mozarabicus" and the "Liber Ordinum" sometimes contain after the Communion prayers an "Oratio completuria," or simply, "Completuria," which recalls the Roman "Post- communion." There are many examples of this ("Liber Ordinum," cols. 272, 273; "Liber Moz.," col 343, and pp. xxiii. and xxxv. and the Index at the word "Completuria").
The end of the Mass is thus announced: the Priest salutes the people with "Dominus sit," etc.; the Deacon says: "Solemnia completa sunt in nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi, votum nostrum sit acceptum cum pace. Deo gratias" (P.L., loc. cit., col 120). In the "Liber Mozarabicus" the Deacon says: "Missa acta est" (p. xxxv.).