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Cabrol F. Chapter VI-4. The Mass of the Faithful. 2. The Sacrifice.
THE MASS OF THE WESTERN RITES
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By the Right Reverend Dom Fernand Cabrol
THE MASS IN SPAIN
THE MASS OF THE FAITHFUL
2. THE SACRIFICE.--The prayer of the anaphora, or Eucharistic prayer properly so called, begins after all this preparation.
"Illatio."--This rite in the Mozarabic liturgy bears the name of "Inlatio," or "Illatio;" and St. Isidore defines it in these terms: "Quinta infertur illatio in sanctificatione oblationis in quam etiam Dei laudem, terrestrium creatura, virtutum coelestium universitatis provocatur, et Osanna in Ecclesiis cantatur." It is preceded by a dialogue which differs from that in the Roman Mass. The Priest, bending forward with his hands joined, says: "Introibo ad altare Dei;" the choir: "Ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam." The Priest, laying his hands on the chalice, says: "Aures ad Dominum," the choir answering: "Habemus ad Dominum." The Priest then says: "Sursum corda;" the choir: "Levemus ad Dominum." The Priest bending forward with joined hands: "Deo ac Domino nostro Jesu Christo filio Dei qui est in coelis dignas laudes dignasque gratias referamus." Here he raises his hands towards Heaven (P.L., loc. cit., col. 115). The Mozarabic Illatio," like the Roman Preface or the Gallican "Contestatio," always ends with the "Sanctus," and in Spain, as in Gaul, but unlike Rome, the "Sanctus" is followed by a prayer always called "Post Sanctus." For St. Isidore the "Illatio" or fifth prayer, comprehends the "Sanctus," the "Post Sanctus," and also the Consecration. The sixth prayer is that of the "Post pridie," or "Confirmatio Sacramenti." This division seems just, for it marks clearly the close union of all these parts, from the "Illatio" to the end of the Consecration. Again it is better suited to the title "Immolatio" which is that of the Gallican Prefaces, the word being a good synonym for "Consecratio."
As to the word "Illatio," it is characteristic of the Mozarabic books. Some have attempted to prove that it is a copyist's error for "Immolatio," which, as has been said, is the Gallican title of the Preface, which can be explained naturally. But it is curious that if it be a copyist's error it should be so universal, for the word is found in all the Mozarabic books. The Preface is called "Illatio" everywhere; nor do I believe the word "Immolatio" has ever been found there, except once in the "Liber Ordinum." The question is curious, and perhaps deserves a separate study. "Illatio," or "Inlatio," like "Oblatio" (which is a synonym), is almost the exact translation of the word "anaphero," to offer. In the post-classic tongue the word "Inlatio" (from "inferre") means the action of carrying, like "Invectio," and is specially applied to the dead (Ulpien); it also signifies the paying of tribute. In philosophic language an "Illatio" is a conclusion drawn from premisses, "ex duobus sumptis ratione sibimet nexis conficitur illatio" (Capella). In Spain the word is used in the Councils in the sense of gift, present, tribute (Third Council of Braga, can. 2; and Seventh Council of Toledo). Thus the term "Immolatio" of the Gallican liturgies is something quite different, which may be a corruption, or, if we like, a paleographic interpretation of the word "Illatio." This is the opinion of Dom Cagin ("Les noms latins de la preface eucharistique," in "Rassegna Gregoriana," 1906, PP. 322-358) and also that to which Lesley was inclined (cf. P.L., Vol. LXXXV, col. 507). But so far this is only a hypothesis founded on the similarity of the two words. It remains to be explained why one is exclusively used in the Mozarabic MSS. and the other almost exclusively in the Gallican.
On this point the latter are less exclusive than the former. In the "Missale Gothicum" as well as in the "Missale Gallicanum Immolatio" alternates with "Contestatio" and "Praefatio Missae;" it is not found at all in the "Missale Francorum," and only once in the Missal of Bobbio, and then, as it would seem, by accident (cf. "Paleographie musicale," Vol. V, PP. 100, 101, and 168). The word is absent, as well as "Contestatio," in the letters of the pseudoGermain, and it may well be that this is a fresh argument in favor of the recent date of these pretended letters (cf. "Germain, Lettres de Saint," in DACL). The glossaries and "Thesauri," Ducange, Forcellini, Freund, and the "Thesaurus linguae latinae" of Leipzig give but very insufficient information on this subject, under the word "Contestatio."
Of the dialogue which precedes the "Illatio" we shall say nothing. It contains what we may call the essential elements which may be found in all liturgies, "Sursum corda," "Gratias agamus," etc., and those which serve as the opening of all Prefaces: "Vere dignum et justum est," etc. To the sobriety of the dialogue of the Roman Preface the Spanish liturgy, as always, adds ornaments and complications which only serve to overload the text.
We are obliged to say the same thing of the "Illatio" itself. The Mozarabic books offer the richest and most varied collection of "Illationes;" hardly a Mass but has its own; some of them comprise many columns of text, and if they were sung, these must have lasted at least half an hour. We will attempt presently to discover their authors. But we may say at once that they form a dogmatic collection which is priceless for the study of theological history in Spain during the Middle Ages, and a collection which, it must be confessed, has as yet been but little studied. It contains pages which do honor to the learning, the depth, and the culture of Spanish theologians from the fifth-ninth centuries. We have treated the question of the orthodoxy of this liturgy elsewhere (see "Liturgia," p. 816). Here and there we do doubtless find a few singular opinions, but taken as a whole what riches of doctrine, what fervor of faith and piety i Here are real theological theses, and long panegyrics for the Feasts of Saints, especially for the Saints of Spain, like St. Vincent or St. Eulalia. We will mention only the "Illationes" on the Samaritan, on the man born blind, on fasting, on the Trinity, on the Descent into hell, on the Patriarchs, etc. (The first of these are in the "Liber Sacramentorum," edited by Dom Ferotin, pp. 167, 178, 184, 224, and 290; that on the Patriarchs in P.L., Vol. LXXXV, cols. 271 and 287. See also the "Illatio" on the Trinity, col. 281.)
Naturally the same faults which we have already pointed out in all the other parts of this liturgy are found here; they are those of the Latin literature of Spain, especially from the sixth-tenth centuries--prolixity, verbiage, the abuse of verbal conceits and plays on words--in fact, all those faults which have been decorated with the name of Gongorism.
"The Sanctus."--The "Illatio" always ends by a transition to the "Sanctus." This "Sanctus" of the Mozarabic Mass is not invariable, as it is in the Roman liturgy and most others. In their love of variety the Mozarabic authors often introduced changes. This is the ordinary form:
"Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth: pleni sunt celi et terra gloria majestatis tue: Osanna filio David: Osanna in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini: Osanna in excelsis" (P.L., loc. cit., col. 116).
The singing of the Sanctus is assigned to the choir in the Mozarabic books. Formerly both in Spain and in Gaul the "Sanctus" was sung by the people. Thus we have in a "Post Sanctus" the words: "Psallitur" (hymnus iste) "ab angelis, et hic solemniter decantatur a populis" ("Post Sanctus" of the fifth Sunday in Lent, P.L., col. 376). Gregory of Tours says in his turn: "Ubi expeditur contestatione omnis populus sanctus in Dei laudem pro clamavit" ("De mir. S. Martini," I, II, c. xiv.). The Eastern liturgies formerly had the same custom, as we see by the "Apostolic Constitutions," and by the texts of St. John Chrysostom and of St. Gregory of Nyssa, quoted by Lesley (col. 349). The texts quoted prove that it was sung in Spain half in Latin, half in Greek. The same usage obtained in Gaul.
"Post Sanctus and Consecration."--The title "Post Sanctus," both in Spain and in Gaul, always designates a prayer which is a paraphrase of the "Sanctus," and which usually begins with the words "Vere sanctus." It is a transition from the "Sanctus" to the Consecration; and is also found, though without a title, in the Greek and Eastern liturgies. In Spain it varied daily (see, for example, P.L., col. 549).
"Vere sanctus" did not end formerly with a doxology, but went straight on to "Qui pridie," by a short formula of this kind: "Vere sanctus, vere benedictus Dominus noster Jesus Christus qui pridie," with the words of Institution. The "Qui pridie" was the Roman formula, as also that of the Gallican and all the Latin churches. The ancient Spanish liturgy followed the same tradition. By a change wrought in the Mozarabic liturgy at a date which cannot be fixed, one of the most audacious changes of which that rite has preserved the trace, the sacred formula was broken into by the introduction of the prayer "Adesto Jesu bone," and by replacing the "Qui pridie," one of the most striking and characteristic features of the Roman and other Latin liturgies, by the "In qua nocte," which is the version followed by all the Greek and Eastern rites. What is perhaps even more extraordinary, the reformers did not try to conceal the traces of this change, but continued to call the prayer which follows the recital of the Institution, "Oratio post pridie!" We give here the text of the "Adesto:"
"Adesto, adesto Jesu bone Pontifex in medio nostri: sicut fuisti in medio discipulorum tuorum: sanctitfica hanc oblationem: ut sanctificata sumamus per manus sancti angeli tui sancte domine ac redemtor eterne (here there is a gap in the Missale Mixtum). Dominus noster Jesus Christus in qua nocte tradebatur accepit panem: et gratias agens, benedixit ac fregit: deditque discipulis suis dicens: Accipite et manducate. Hoc: est: corpus: meum: quod: pro: vobis: tradetur. Hic elevatur corpus. Quotiescumque manducaveritis: hoc facite in meam commemorationem. Similiter et calicem postquam cenavit dicens. Hic est: calix: novi: testamenti: in: meo: sanguine: qui: pro: vobis: et: pro: multis: effundetur: in: remissionem: peccatorum. Hic elevatur calix coopertus cum filiola (=palla). Quotiescumque biberitis hoc facite in meam commemorationem. Et cum perventum fuerit ubi dicit: In meam commemorationem, dicat presb. alta voce omnibus diebus preter festivis: pari modo ubi dicit in claritatem de celis. Ut qualibet vice respondeat chorus: Amen. Quotiescumque manducaveritis panem hunc et calicem biberitis: mortem Domini annunciabitis donec veniet. In claritatem de celis. Chorus. Amen" (P.L., loc. cit., cols. 116--117; cf. also col. 550, another text).
In the later editions of the "Missale Mixtum" a note has been added to the effect that the form of Consecration here given is only a memorial of the past, but that at the present time the Roman form must be adhered to (ibid., cols. 116, and 550, 551, note a).
Dom Ferotin gives two new texts of the words of Institution according to the Liber Mozarabicus and the Liber Ordinum," which present many variants, not only with each other but with the "Missale Mixtum." It can be seen that Rome did not approve the version given in the "Missale Mixtum" of 1500, and substituted for it the Roman formula. That extremely rare edition of Todole preserved at the British Museum contains, fastened to the vellum, this note: "Forma ista consecrationis ponitur ne antiquitas ignoretur; sed hodie servetur Ecclesiae traditio;" and the Roman formula is then given. (This note is reproduced in P.L., cols. 116 and 550. On all this cf. Dom Ferotin, "Liber Mozarabicus," p. xxv.) In two MSS. quoted by Dom Ferotin the words of Institution are preceded by the title "Missa secreta;" and he gives another example in which the "Post Sanctus" is called "Post Missam secretam," which clearly show that at that time this part of the Canon was said in a low voice (ibid.).
The very tenor of this prayer shows that it interrupts the sequence of the "Vere sanctus," and repeats the formula "Dominus noster Jesus Christus." It is quite evidently an interpolation, a fact which has been emphasized by the greater number of modern liturgiologists since Le Brun, Binius, Lesley, Dom Ferotin, Dom Cagin, etc. But no protestations seem to have been raised in the Middle Ages; at least I do not think that any signs of them have been traced up till now. Without seeking for any other explanation, it must simply be stated that at a certain moment, assuredly later than St. Isidore and probably before the tenth century--probably also at Toledo--a Bishop thought well to borrow, from the liturgy of Constantinople, which had already lent so much to Spain, the actual form of Consecration, and this he then substituted for the ancient form which was that of Rome and of all Latin churches (P.L., loc. cit., col 549).
The actual formula, "Hoc est corpus meum," is borrowed from I Cor. xi. 24; while the "quod pro vobis" is the translation of the Vulgate. The Roman formula, "Hoc est enim corpus meum," conforms to that in the liturgy of St. Mark; and it seems also to have been that of the Gallican churches, at least, according to the letters of the pseudo Germain. The formula for the Consecration of the wine is borrowed from I Cor. xi. 24, and from St. Luke xxii. 20, and St. Matthew xxvi. 28. The words "Hic est calix novi Testamenti in meo sanguine" are those of an ancient Latin version different from the Vulgate; they are quoted under the same form by Sedulius Scotus and by Gregory II (see the quotation, P.L., loc. cit., col. 551). The Roman formula, "Hic est enim calix sanguinis mei," etc., was also that of the Gallican churches. The Spanish liturgiologists of that day were not afraid to paraphrase the words of Institution in their own way. (On all this see Lesley's note, col. 551 seq.)
It is stated in the rubrics of the recital of the Institution that there was a double elevation. The custom of the elevation is universal, but it was not practiced everywhere in the same way. That here mentioned is conformable with the usage established in France in the eleventh century, which thence spread, with certain variants, to Rome and to other churches. The Mozarabic rubric shows that the chalice was covered at the elevation; that is, covered with the "palla," or veil, sometimes called the "Offertorium," because it had been used to collect the offerings of the faithful at the Oblation. This was formerly the Roman custom when the elevation took place at the end of the Canon after the "Per ipsum" (cf. the first "Ordo Romanus" of Mabillon, note 16, and the "Ordo" published by Hittorp).
Another rubric which prescribes the words "In meam commemorationem" and "In claritatem de celis" to be said aloud would give the impression that the actual words of the Institution were to be said in a low voice. But Lesley thinks with apparent reason that this rubric is recent, and that the Spanish, like the French, said these words aloud. As to the words "In claritatem de celis," they are another peculiarity of the Mozarabic rite. On Holy Thursday the Epistle was read from I Cor. xi. 20-34. After the words "mortem Domini annunciabitis donec veniat" they added this variant: "in claritatem de celis" taken from the liturgy, but which does not exist in the Vulgate, or in the Greek, or in any other version with which we are acquainted (see P.L., col. 409, for the text of the Epistle, and col. 552 for the rubric).
"Oratio Post pridie" and "Epiclesis."--The prayer Post pridie, which follows the Consecration, corresponds with that called "Post secreta," or "Post mysterium" in the Gallican books. St. Isidore speaks of it in these terms: "Ex hinc sexta oratio succedit, confirmatio sacramenti, ut oblatio quae Domino offertur, per Spiritum Sanctum sanctificata Christi corporis et sanguinis confirmetur" ("De offic.," I, I, c. xv.; cf. Etherius and Beatus, who emphasize the terms "Confirmatio sacramenti"). It should be noted that the Missal of Bobbio has no prayer "Post secreta," which is also missing occasionally in the "Missale Gallicanum" as well as in the "Missale Gothicum." But on the other hand it is always found in the "Missale Mixtum," and as it varies daily, and is sometimes very long, we have here, as in the "Illatio," one of those prayers in which the exuberance of the Spanish Fathers has had free course. Both the place and the function of this prayer Confirmatio Sacramenti "are more propitious than those of the "Illatio" for dogmatic developments. It will be found of great use in the study of the doctrine of the Spanish church upon the Eucharist, notably upon Transubstantiation and the questions connected with it. In reality the prayer answers to the "Epiclesis" of the Eastern liturgies, and, as we have remarked elsewhere, the expressions here used must often be interpreted "cum grano salis." We can note only a few of such examples here, as in cols. 117 and 250, note 7; 519, note a (cf. also article "Liturgie," in "Dict. de theol.," coL 812, and "Epiclese" in DACL).
Sometimes, but far more rarely, the "Epiclesis" is found in the "Post sanctus." (There are some examples of this in Dom Ferotin's "Liber Mozarabicus;" in the same Sacramentary the "Post pridie" is called "Post missam secretam" on the vigil of Easter, a point worthy of remark.) On the other hand, and speaking generally, the "Post pridie" often contains the proof that the Consecration or Transubstantiation is accomplished by the words of Institution. To this interpretation the elevation also bears witness, but it is difficult to fix the date of this rite with the Mozarabites. We may quote, as especially explicit, the following "Post pridie: Hec pia, hec salutaris hostia, Deus Pater, qua tibi reconciliatus est mundus. Hoc est corpus illud, quod pependit in cruce. Hic etiam sanguis, qui sacro propluxit ex latere, etc." ("Liber Moz.," col. 313)
The prayer "Te prestante," which for the rest has no particular title, seems rather the conclusion of the "Post pridie" than a separate prayer. As we shall see, it resembles our "Per quem haec omnia bona creas." This is the text:
"Te prestante sancte Domine: quia tu haec omnia nobis indignis servis tuis: valde bona creas: sanctificas, vivificas benedicis ac prestas nobis: ut sit (sint) benedicta a te Deo nostro in secula seculorum. Amen."
The Priest then takes the consecrated Host on the paten, holds it over the uncovered chalice, and says, or sings: "Dominus sit semper vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo. Fidem quam corde credimus ore autem dicamus," and he elevates the consecrated Host to show It to the people. In some places there was sung at this point an anthem: "Ad confractionem panis" (P.L., loc. cit., col. 117; cf. also p. 554 for the explanation of this prayer). Here, as in the Ambrosian Missal, the "Haec omnia" seems to refer to the consecrated elements of bread and wine, created by God, sanctified by prayer, vivified by Consecration, blessed by the Holy Ghost (Epiclesis), and finally given to the faithful in the Eucharist. This at least is the interpretation given to these words by Lesley, who will not admit that of Benedict XIV and other liturgiologists, who say that "Haec omnia" means the fresh fruits which were blessed at this moment. It is an old quarrel amongst liturgiologists, and one which seems as yet unresolved (Benedict XIV, "De missae sacrificio," I, II, c. xviii.). Lesley admits that in certain Sacramentaries these words may indeed apply to a blessing of this kind, but only in a special case. In his opinion the words are too precise, the gestures too solemn to be applied to anything but the elements consecrated in the Eucharist (col. 553, note c).
It is a general custom that the Elevation should take place at this moment. Before the eleventh century it was the principal Elevation. We may also notice that in the Roman Missal the prayer is addressed to God the Father, and that it closes with a magnificent doxology which has disappeared in the Mozarabic Mass.
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