Cabrol F. Chapter VI-1. The Mass in Spain. The Mozarabic Liturgy
THE MASS OF THE WESTERN RITES By the Right Reverend Dom Fernand Cabrol
THE MASS IN SPAIN
The Mozarabic liturgy,--Mozarabic books.--The Pre-Mass.--The Mass of the Faithful.--Remarks on this Mass.
THE MOZARABIC LITURGY
The Mozarabic liturgy is that which was followed in Spain before the Arab conquest in 712, and which, after that date, was still generally in use both by those Spanish who had submitted to the Arabs and by those others who, having withdrawn into the northern provinces, were able to retain their independence. The term "Mozarabic" (from musta'rab, or mixto-arabic, "mixed with the Arabs") only applies in reality to that part of the Spanish population which did submit to the Saracens. It is, strictly speaking, a mistake to use it to qualify the Spanish liturgy, since this existed in Spain previous to the Arab conquest; and, further, because it was also the liturgy of the free Spaniards in the north. Nevertheless, since this name is now well established, and is used by most authors, we think it best to retain it here. Further, the names of Visigothic rite, rite of Toledo, Hispanic, Gothic, or Spanish rite, by which it has been proposed to replace the word "Mozarabic" rite, are none of them in themselves perfectly correct.
In all cases this term denotes a liturgy which has been that of Spain from the beginning of her history; which was maintained in that country until the twelfth century, and which, even after its suppression, was still followed in a few churches, and in the sixteenth century was officially restored in the churches of Toledo, where at the present time it is still practiced. Whatever we may think of its name, the Mozarabic liturgy itself is fairly well known to us. We may even say that, with the exception of the Roman liturgy, it is this which provides us with the greatest number of documents, and gives us the most important information, as may easily be verified by the paragraph in which these sources are enumerated.
This, however, is not the place to discuss the question of the origin and sources of these liturgical documents; we can but refer our readers to the article "Mozarabe" (liturgie) in DACL. It is enough to say that we are not now reduced (as was the case until recently) to the "Missale Mixtum" of Lesley, but that at present we have the "Liber Ordinum" (Missal and Pontifical) and the "Liber Mozarabicus Sacramentorum," both published by Dom Ferotin, and also the "Comes," or "Liber Comicus," published by Dom Morin. Thanks to these various documents we can easily reconstitute the Mozarabic Mass, and go back to an epoch which is almost that of its origin: let us say, the eighth, or even the seventh, century.